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Access_open Fenomenologie van het proces van bewijzen in strafzaken. Over de noodzaak van het vooroordeel

Journal Netherlands Journal of Legal Philosophy, Issue Pre-publications 2019
Keywords existentiële fenomenologie, hermeneutiek, vooroordeel, rationele bewijstheorieën, strafrecht
Authors Thomas de Jong
AbstractAuthor's information

    In de wetenschappelijke literatuur over het proces van bewijzen in strafzaken kunnen grofweg drie niet-juridische bewijstheorieën worden onderscheiden: de argumentatieve benadering, de theorie van verhaal en verankering en de benadering op basis van de Bayesiaanse kansrekening. Hoewel ze van elkaar verschillen gaan al deze theorieën er in meer of mindere mate van uit dat het bewijzen een rationeel regelgeleid proces is en vooral ook behoort te zijn. Dit is in belangrijke mate ingegeven door het Cartesiaanse dualisme van subject en object, dat tot op heden doorwerkt in onze conceptie van kwalificaties als rationaliteit, objectiviteit en wetenschappelijkheid. Deze bijdrage beoogt een herwaardering van de vigerende rationalistische visie op strafrechtelijk bewijzen te poneren. Tegen de achtergrond van de existentiële fenomenologie wordt een lans gebroken voor een hermeneutisch begrijpen van bewijs, waarin het vooroordeel zijn rechtmatige plaats heeft. Daarbij wordt aansluiting gevonden bij het oorspronkelijke gedachtegoed van Aristoteles over redeneren en argumenteren.


Thomas de Jong
Thomas de Jong is senior parketsecretaris bij het arrondissementsparket Noord-Holland.

    In dit artikel wordt langs wijsgerige weg de verhouding tussen tijd, identiteit en het verlenen van (sterkere) verblijfsaanspraken aan migranten onderzocht en verhelderd door een nieuwe betekenis van de term worteling voor te stellen. Want wat is worteling nu eigenlijk? Het is de relatie tussen menselijke tijd, worteling en het migratierecht die in dit artikel filosofisch wordt uitgediept. Dit om te verklaren waarom we in het migratierecht vreemdelingen in het algemeen na verloop van tijd sterkere aanspraken verlenen. In dit artikel wordt betoogd dat het verblijf van vreemdelingen op het grondgebied ervoor zorgt dat hun leven aldaar na verloop van tijd een vanzelfsprekend onderdeel uitmaakt van hun identiteit, en van het leven van anderen. Het is dit vanzelfsprekend worden van mensen door de tijd dat de grond is voor het bestaan van formele tijdscriteria voor insluiting in het migratierecht.


Mr. dr. Martijn Stronks
Article

Access_open Positieve uitlokking van ethisch hacken

Een onderzoek naar responsible-disclosurebeleid

Journal Netherlands Journal of Legal Philosophy, Issue 2 2017
Keywords ethical hacking, responsible disclosure, positive incitement, negative incitement, intrinsic desirability
Authors Karel Harms
AbstractAuthor's information

    In this contribution, the Dutch government’s acceptance of ethical hacking, by implementing a policy of responsible disclosure, is considered to be a beneficent development. Ethical hacking contributes to cybersecurity and is intrinsically desirable. The term positive incitement is proposed to describe the relatively new phenomenon of encouraging ethical hacking. Positive incitement will be analysed by making a comparison to the Dutch toleration policy regarding soft drugs, and to incitement by law enforcement. Positive incitement should not change into negative incitement, which would result in a serious breach of the rights of ethical hackers. Furthermore, it is argued that the intrinsic value of ethical hacking can justify searching for vulnerabilities in systems of organisations who do not approve of this in advance.


Karel Harms
Karel Harms studeert aan de Rijksuniversiteit Groningen en volgt de master Rechtswetenschappelijk onderzoek.
Article

Access_open Schade in de virtuele wereld: de casus virtuele grooming

Journal Netherlands Journal of Legal Philosophy, Issue 2 2017
Keywords Virtuele grooming, Schade, Strafbaarstelling, Uitlokverbod
Authors Prof. mr. Jeroen ten Voorde
AbstractAuthor's information

    As part of a package of legislative measures concerning cybercrime, the Dutch State Secretary for Security and Justice proposes to criminalize virtual grooming, that is the grooming of a person of minor age who, for example, does only exist as an online creature. The legislator’s principle argument for criminalization is based on the harm principle. This article examines the possibility of founding the criminalization of virtual grooming on this principle.


Prof. mr. Jeroen ten Voorde
Jeroen ten Voorde is bijzonder hoogleraar strafrechtsfilosofie (leerstoel Leo Polak) aan de Rijksuniversiteit Groningen en universitair hoofddocent straf- en strafprocesrecht aan de Universiteit Leiden.

    I will argue that it is possible to give a neutral or antiperfectionist legitimation for state support for religion, which I consider a perfectionist good that is not in the common interest. I will argue that state support for perfectionist goods (and thus also for religion) can, in some circumstances and under certain conditions, be allowed as a second-best option in order to guarantee an adequate range of valuable options to choose among - and this range of options is a necessary condition for autonomy. Subsequently, I will argue that the bottom line - which is also the limit - for support is a sufficient range of valuable options. Furthermore, I will argue that state support for religion is only allowed if there is a democratic consensus about the value of that particular perfectionist good. Finally, I will claim that state support for religion is only allowed under certain conditions.


Leni Franken
Leni Franken is als doctor-assistente verbonden aan het Centrum Pieter Gillis (Universiteit Antwerpen), waar zij levensbeschouwing doceert in de faculteiten Rechten en Toegepaste Ingenieurswetenschappen.
Article

Access_open Recht als human condition

Journal Netherlands Journal of Legal Philosophy, Issue 1 2013
Keywords homo faber, homo agens, human condition, participatory judgment, law-linked justice, existence-linked justice
Authors Peter van Schilfgaarde
AbstractAuthor's information

    This paper concentrates on the dynamic tension between law as it is ‘made’ by legal professionals, functioning as homo faber, and law as it is experienced by citizens, functioning as homo agens. In between those two worlds, law develops as a human condition, a term borrowed from Hannah Arendt. It is argued that, in regard to law development and administration of justice, the function of homo agens should have priority over the function of homo faber. The two basic faculties that connect the two worlds are judgment and speech. This leads to further thoughts on the character of judgment as ‘participatory judgment,’ the function of ‘middle terms’ in legal language and the concept of ‘shared responsibility.’


Peter van Schilfgaarde
Peter van Schilfgaarde is an Attorney at Law at the Supreme Court of The Netherlands in The Hague and former Professor of Corporate Law at the Universities of Groningen and Utrecht.
Article

Access_open De liberale canon: argumenten voor vrijheid

Journal Netherlands Journal of Legal Philosophy, Issue 2 2012
Keywords enforcement of morals, liberalism, liberty, political liberalism, Rawls
Authors Alex Bood
AbstractAuthor's information

    This article examines how a liberal public morality can be most successfully defended against perfectionism. First of all the five most important liberal arguments for freedom are taken from what is called the liberal canon: a number of characteristic works of John Locke, Immanuel Kant, John Stuart Mill, Isaiah Berlin, Joseph Raz, Ronald Dworkin, and John Rawls. These five arguments are identified as: social and political realism, respect for autonomy, fallibility of ideas, pluralism, and respect for reasonableness. Next, the persuasiveness of these arguments is assessed, starting with the argument of respect for reasonableness, which is at the heart of Rawls’s political liberalism. It is concluded that in itself this argument is not strong enough to persuade perfectionists. A powerful defence of a liberal public morality needs the other arguments for freedom as well. Finally, the paper outlines how these other arguments can strengthen the argument of respect for reasonableness in a coherent manner.


Alex Bood
Alex Bood is Research Manager at the Dutch Public Prosecution’s Office for Criminal Law Studies (WBOM).
Article

Access_open De Drittwirkung van grondrechten

Retorisch curiosum of vaandel van een paradigmatische omwenteling in ons rechtsbestel?

Journal Netherlands Journal of Legal Philosophy, Issue 1 2012
Keywords Drittwirkung, horizontal effect of human rights, constitutionalisation of private law
Authors Stefan Somers
AbstractAuthor's information

    This article discusses whether the horizontal effect of human rights marks a new paradigm in legal systems or is merely a new style in legal rhetoric. In doing so, much attention is paid to the differences between direct and indirect horizontal effect. Departing from social contract theory the article explains that the protection of human right values in horizontal relations is an essential feature of modern constitutionalism. It also analyses whether these values in horizontal relations should be protected by private law or by human rights. This question is looked at from a substantial, a methodological and an institutional perspective. In the end, because of institutional power balancing, the article argues in favor of an indirect horizontal effect of human rights.


Stefan Somers
Stefan Somers is a researcher at the Department of Interdisciplinary Studies at the VUB (Free University of Brussels) and prepares a PhD on the relationship between human rights and tort law.
Article

Access_open Over de klassieke oorsprong van de rechten van de mens

Journal Netherlands Journal of Legal Philosophy, Issue 2 2011
Keywords human rights, natural law, perfectionism, Stoa, Cicero
Authors René Brouwer
AbstractAuthor's information

    In this article I reconstruct the contribution of some central Hellenistic political thinkers to a theory of human rights. Starting point is the traditional Stoic conception of the law of nature as a power in which only perfect human beings actively participate. In the 2nd century BC the Stoic Panaetius adjusted this traditional high-minded theory by also allowing for a lower level of human excellence. This second-rate human excellence can be achieved just by following ‘proper functions’, which are derived from ordinary human nature and can be laid down in rules. From here, it was only a small, yet decisive step – presumably to be attributed to one of Cicero’s teachers – to discard the highest level of human perfection altogether. This step, I argue, paved the way for an understanding of the rules of natural law in terms of human rights.


René Brouwer
René Brouwer is Lecturer in Legal Theory at the University of Utrecht.
Article

Access_open Legitimiteit, gemeenschap en rechtvaardigheid

Een kritiek op Dworkins verklaring voor legitimiteit

Journal Netherlands Journal of Legal Philosophy, Issue 1 2011
Keywords legitimacy, associative obligations, justice, community, Dworkin
Authors Thomas Decreus
AbstractAuthor's information

    In Law’s Empire Ronald Dworkin offers a specific answer to the age old question of political legitimacy. According to Dworkin, legitimacy originates in a ‘true community’ that is able to generate associative obligations among its members. In this article I illustrate how this answer contrasts with the moral and political principle of justice. The question remains how a conceptual link can be found between a community-based view on legitimacy and a more universal demand for justice. I try to answer this question by offering a close reading of Law’s Empire and other basic essays in Dworkin’s philosophy of law. In my attempt to solve this problem I propose an alternative view on community and legitimacy. In opposition to Dworkin I claim that legitimacy is prior to the community.


Thomas Decreus
Thomas Decreus is PhD student in political philosophy at the KULeuven Institute of Philosophy.
Article

Access_open Is de vrijheid van godsdienst in de moderne multiculturele samenleving nog een hanteerbaar recht?

Journal Netherlands Journal of Legal Philosophy, Issue 2 2010
Keywords freedom of religion, human rights, human dignity, traditional religion, unequal treatment
Authors Koo van der Wal
AbstractAuthor's information

    There are two fundamental problems with regard to the freedom of religion. The first concerns the content and scope of the right; the second, a possible unequal treatment between population groups. The first problem can only be dealt with by a preliminary analysis of the religious phenomenon, which precedes a legal definition. It turns out that there is a range of different types of religion, with on the one hand traditional forms of religion which are narrowly interwoven with the culture in question (all kinds of ‘cultural’ practices possessing a religious dimension), and on the other forms of religion which loosen to a considerable extent the ties between culture and religion. Evidently, the former types of religion cause problems in modern society. An additional problem is that freedom of religion as a modern basic right rests on a view of human being – including the idea of the inherent dignity and autonomy of the human person – which is at odds with the symbolic universe of traditional religion. The conclusion of the article is that in the modern pluralist society freedom of religion is on its way to becoming, or already has become, an unmanageable right. So the problems arising around this right (including that of unequal treatment) can only be solved in a pragmatic, not really satisfactory way. In that context, modern humanitarian standards should be observed in the implementation of the right of freedom of religion because fundamental human rights are connected with a specific concept of humanity.


Koo van der Wal
Koo van der Wal is emeritus professor of Philosophy at the University of Amsterdam and the Erasmus University Rotterdam.
Article

Access_open Lettres Persanes 13

Res publica en rechtsstaat: vrijheid in een onvolmaakte samenleving – Pleidooi voor een functionele (niet te bevlogen) grondwet

Journal Netherlands Journal of Legal Philosophy, Issue 1 2009
Keywords Vlaanderen, constitutie, Grondwet, fundamentele vrijheden
Authors Matthias Storme
AbstractAuthor's information

    In light of the possibility that Belgium could fall apart in coming years this contribution argues that it is time to reflect on a constitution for Flanders: What are the characteristics of a good constitution? A good constitution would entrench fundamental freedoms, which are historically rooted in society. Moreover, it obliges the government to maintain and enforce the laws, preventing abuse of power and corruption. Finally, a functioning constitution stands above temporary interests of partisan politics, and should not be used as a means to encumber future generations with our ideological choices.


Matthias Storme
Matthias Storme is advocaat aan de balie van Brussel en buitengewoon hoogleraar aan de Katholieke Universiteit Leuven en aan de Universiteit Antwerpen.
Article

Access_open Recht als sociaal feit en recht als praktische rede

Journal Netherlands Journal of Legal Philosophy, Issue 1 2009
Keywords recht als sociaal verschijnsel, recht en praktische rede, recht en moraal, Brouwer
Authors Jaap Hage
AbstractAuthor's information

    Brouwer argued against a vision of the law in which moral considerations partly determine the contents of the law. He did this for moral reasons, mainly because of the uncertainty such a vision would cause. This seems a strange view because it means that the nature of the law would depend on moral considerations concerning legal certainty. Most of the present paper is devoted to exploring two conceptions of the law, law as social fact and law as practical reason. It is argued that a view like Brouwer’s fits in the law as practical reason conception and is therefore not so strange as might seem at first sight.


Jaap Hage
Jaap Hage is hoogleraar Algemene rechtsleer aan de Universiteit Maastricht en gasthoogleraar aan de Universiteit Hasselt.
Article

Access_open De betekenis van juridische statuswoorden

Journal Netherlands Journal of Legal Philosophy, Issue 1 2008
Keywords eigenaar, eigendom, rechtsgevolg, ongehuwde, eigendomsverkrijging, overdracht, betaling, redenering, schuld, beschadiging
Authors J. Hage

J. Hage
Article

Access_open Wetenschappelijke rechtsfilosofie?

Journal Netherlands Journal of Legal Philosophy, Issue 1 2007
Keywords mededinging, moeder, aansprakelijkheid, betrouwbaarheid, claim, gebrek, idee, krediet, noodzakelijkheid, publicatieplicht
Authors J. Hage

J. Hage
Article

Access_open Democratie als politiek systeem, als idee en als levenshouding: Reactie op het artikel 'Democratie zonder volk' van Hong Quoc Loc

Journal Netherlands Journal of Legal Philosophy, Issue 1 2007
Keywords democratie, idee, verhaal, meerderheidsregel, algemeen belang, voorwaarde, citaat, kind, arrangement, doding
Authors K. Wal

K. Wal
Article

Access_open De rechter is geen waarheidsvinder, maar een motiverende beslisser!

Journal Netherlands Journal of Legal Philosophy, Issue 1 2006
Keywords gerechtelijke procedure, kwaliteit, motivering, aanvaarding, bestuurder, fout, herstel, idee, legitimiteit, media
Authors N. Huls

N. Huls
Article

Access_open Ook TBS is bedoelde leedtoevoeging

Journal Netherlands Journal of Legal Philosophy, Issue 1 2006
Keywords terbeschikkingstelling, strafrecht, schikking, zoon, herstel, overleden, redenering, bank, claim, fabriek
Authors V. Geeraets

V. Geeraets
Article

Access_open Na het referendum: waar gaan wij naartoe?

Journal Netherlands Journal of Legal Philosophy, Issue 2 2006
Keywords verdrag, referendum, democratie, lidstaat, noodzakelijkheid, verlies, Europese unie, identiteit, pleidooi, idee
Authors T. Mertens

T. Mertens
Article

Access_open De rechtsstaat is geen huis. Een metafooranalyse en -kritiek

Journal Netherlands Journal of Legal Philosophy, Issue 2 2005
Keywords rechtsstaat, democratie, noodzakelijkheid, auteur, ontlening, overdracht, woning, identiteit, verbouwing, legaliteit
Authors B. Klink

B. Klink
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